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prostatic carcinoma

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Prostate carcinoma is considered to be a spectrum of diseases which may vary from slow growing tumours (which are often asymptomatic) to very aggressive tumours (1).

  • it is the most common cancer in men in the UK
  • is largely a disease of older men and is rare before 50 years (1)
  • prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and makes up 26% of all male cancer diagnoses in the UK (2)
    • prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and the second most common cancer in the UK
      • in 2014, there were over 46,000 new diagnoses of prostate cancer, which accounts for 13% of all new cancers diagnosed. About 1 in 8 men will get prostate cancer at some point in their life
      • prostate cancer can also affect transgender women, as the prostate is usually conserved after gender-confirming surgery, but it is not clear how common it is in this population
      • more than 50% of prostate cancer diagnoses in the UK each year are in men aged 70 years and over (2012), and the incidence rate is highest in men aged 90 years and over (2012 to 2014)
      • out of every 10 prostate cancer cases, 4 are only diagnosed at a late stage in England (2014) and Northern Ireland (2010 to 2014)

Prostate tumours can be divided into:

  • localised prostate cancer
    • the tumour is confined to the capsule of the gland
    • grows slowly and usually remains asymptomatic (1)
  • locally advanced prostate cancer
    • cancers have extended outside the prostatic capsule
    • frequently asymptomatic
  • metastatic prostate cancer
    • may be the first sign of prostate cancer
    • frequently spreads to the bone and causes pain
    • majority die due to the metastatic disease
    • 5-year survival rate  is approximately 30% (1)

UK stage at diagnosis (3):

  • prostate cancer patients diagnosed with a known stage are most commonly diagnosed at stage I in England (35%), stage II in Northern Ireland (39%) and stage IV in Scotland (34%)
  • more prostate cancer patients with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (57-63% diagnosed at stage I or II) than a late stage (37-43% diagnosed at stage III or IV) in England and Northern Ireland
  • however, in Scotland more prostate cancer patients with a known stage are diagnosed at a late stage (44% diagnosed at stage III or IV) than an early stage (57% diagnosed at stage I or II)
  • between 17% and 34% of prostate cancer patients have metastases at diagnosis (stage IV)

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