Parinaud's ophthalmoplegia is the paralysis of conjugate movement that is associated with midbrain lesions.
The clinical features are:
- a loss of vertical gaze
- nystagmus on attempted convergence
- pseudo-Argyll-Robertson pupils:
- large pupils with sluggish reaction to light
Bilateral papilloedema is common.
The causes of Parinaud's ophthalmoplegia include:
- pinealoma and other tumours affecting the mid-brain
- multiple sclerosis
- vascular lesions