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Gynaecomastia can be defined as the benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue (1) with a mass consisting of >2cm in size, which appears as firm, palpable, subareolar gland and ductal breast tissue on examination (2)

  • this condition mainly results from a relative decrease in androgen effect or increase in oestrogen effect (2)
  • it may be drug-induced or associated with conditions which alter the oestradiol / testosterone ratio, for example, chronic liver disease
  • it commonly occurs in puberty and old age and is most often entirely reversible.

Pseudogynaecomastia is the condition in which breast enlargement occurs mainly due to excess adipose tissue formation (2).