haemoptysis
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Haemoptysis is the expectoration of blood or blood-stained sputum. Haemoptysis is usually frothy, alkaline and bright red. Not surprisingly it is often a distressing symptom for the patient.

The most common causes include:

  • bronchial carcinoma
  • pulmonary embolism
  • mitral stenosis
  • tuberculosis
  • bronchiectasis

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