Hallux rigidus literally means a stiff big toe.
It is more common in males.
Possible causes of this condition include:
- splitting osteochondritis of the first metatarsal head
- gout or pseudogout
- structural alterations of the first metatarsophalangeal joint are described
as either hallux limitus or hallux rigidus
- term used depends on the magnitude of available joint motion and the
severity of joint degeneration
- hallux limitus is characterized by restricted sagittal plane
motion (primarily dorsiflexion) caused by periarticular osteophytes;
whereas hallux rigidus displays an absence of joint motion
due to end stage degenerative joint disease and subsequent joint ankylosis
- although the terms are often used interchangeably, hallux rigidus
has been adopted by the World Health Organization in the International
Classification of Diseases
- World Health Organization: International Statistical Classification of Diseases
and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision; 2007.