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A vagotomy is the removal of all or some of the branches of the vagus nerve.

Vagotomy may be used to treat peptic ulceration; it has gradually superseded partial gastrectomy as the surgical treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulceration.

This form of treatment is used where acid production is excessive, often seen in chronic duodenal ulceration, rather than situations where the acid production is normal or low, which is often the case in chronic gastric ulceration.