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balkan nephropathy
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Balkan nephropathy is a rare cause of papillary necrosis and of urothelial cancer arising in the upper urinary tract.

It occurs in isolated villages in the Balkans and is thought to be due to a toxin produced by a fungus that attacks grain stored in damp barns.

Clinical features include:

  • beta2-microglobulinuria
  • copper/yellow pigmentation of the palms and soles