pneumaturia
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Pneumaturia is the passage of gas mixed with urine, and may be as a result of a fistula between the bowel and the bladder - a vesico-colic fistula.

  • patient may present with dysuria and frequency, and describe bubbles in the urine. There may be faecaluria.

Proteinuria may also present with persistent bubbles in the urine ('foamy' urine)

Causes of bubbles in the urine therefore include:

  • vesico-colic fistula
    • causes include:
      • diverticular disease
      • Crohn's disease
      • carcinoma of the colon or bladder
  • proteinuria
  • rarely, gas-producing bacterial infection of the urinary tract

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