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quadratus femoris (anatomy)

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Quadratus femoris is one of muscles of the gluteal region posterior to the hip. It derives its name its quadrangular shape.

It originates from the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity just inferior to the inferior gemellus muscle. It passes laterally to insert along a vertical line between the quadrate tubercle of the femur and posterosuperior limit of the lesser trochanter.

It is related to the following structures:

  • superiorly: inferior gemellus
  • inferiorly: adductor magnus
  • deep: intertrochanteric crest and neck of femur
  • superficially:
    • gluteus maximus
    • posterior branch of femoral cutaneous nerve
    • sciatic nerve
    • sciatic branch of inferior gluteal artery

The nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1) provides innervation.

The action of quadratus femoris are to:

  • stabilize the hip joint
  • laterally rotate the hip
  • assist in abduction of the hip if the joint is in flexion