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Craniopharyngiomas are benign, cystic tumours, usually found above the sella turcica, depressing the underlying optic chiasm. They are thought to arise from remnants of Rathke's pouch and account for approximately 3% of primary intracranial tumours. Presentation is usually in children and in young adults.

Most consist of squamous epithelium, calcified debris and cystic regions of cholesteatomatous fluid. About 10% may be solid throughout.