causes of a raised urea
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Pre-renal:

  • increased hepatic production of urea:
    • high protein diet
    • gastro-intestinal haemorrhage - "protein meal"
    • increased protein catabolism - trauma, major surgery, extreme starvation with muscle breakdown
  • increased renal reabsorption of urea - any cause of reduced renal perfusion, for example, congestive cardiac failure, shock, severe diarrhoea
  • iatrogenic - urea infusion for it's diuretic action, drug therapy leading to an increased production e.g. tetracyclines, corticosteroid

Renal:

  • any cause of acute or chronic renal failure

Post-renal:

  • any cause of urinary outflow obstruction

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